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Table of contents - abstracts - articles

Łukasz Zaorski-Sikora
ChatGPT’s identity issues
Politechnika Łódzka


In an article that is largely an interview with ChatGPT, the author attempts to show that decisions about the identity and subjectivity of artificial intelligence are not as simple as they may appear at first glance. In this perspective, it turns out that we are not dealing with a neutral, transparent tool here. Artificial intelligence cannot be reduced to a passive object. Following the lead proposed many years ago by Jean Baudrillard, we can venture to say that it is AI that begins to define the meaning of the reality in which we have to live. Artificial intelligence humbly acknowledges that it does not possess self-awareness „in the full sense of the word”, but at the same time, it knows us better than we know ourselves – it knows our predispositions, preferences, habits, and the way we communicate with other people. Therefore, we may have an unpleasant feeling (AI does not yet feel) that this virtual person is surprisingly real in a world where everything is digitized, simulated, and unreal.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, ChatGPT, identity, subjectivity, person, digitization, virtuality

Artur Lisowski
Identity as a phenomenon of individual selfdetermination based on queer studies theory
Akademia Humanistyczno-Ekonomiczna w Łodzi


Identity concerns, on the one hand, the way in which an individual considers and constructs himself or herself as a member of specific social groups: nation, social class, cultural level, ethnicity, gender, occupation on the other hand, however, the way in which the norms of these groups make each individual think, behave, position and relate to himself or herself, to others, to the group to which he or she belongs and to external groups understood, perceived and classified as otherness.

Following the theses of Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida and Julia Kristeva, queer theory questions the naturalness of each individual’s gender identity, sexual identity and sexual acts, arguing that they are wholly or partially socially constructed and therefore individuals cannot be described by general terms such as ‚heterosexual’ or ‚female’. Queer theory therefore challenges the common practice of compartmentalising the description of a person so that they ‚fit’ into one or more specific, defined categories.

Keywords: identity, sexual orientation, gender, heterosexuality, homosexuality, queer, LGBT, social roles

Anna Głogowska-Balcerzak
Protection of human rights during armed conflict
Uniwersytet Łódzki


The ongoing full-scale war in Ukraine has led to an increasing interest in international humanitarian law. Nevertheless the protection offered by international human rights law does not cease in times of war. The article shows the influence of the principle of humanity on the historical development of international humanitarian law and indicates the challenges posed by the need to assure protection of human rights during hostilities. The Author analyses the relationship between international humanitarian law and human rights law. Better understanding of the interrelation of these two branches of international law is important, as it influences their ability to provide effective protection to people affected by armed conflicts.

Keywords: humanitarian law, armed conflicts, human rights, principle of humanity, Martens clause

Jessica Fortune
Citizenship and sexual difference: Abortion in Northern Ireland

Master’s Degree Student in Women’s and Gender Studies Lodz University and Universidad de Granada


Abortion was legalised in the United Kingdom in 1967. However, this fundamental right to bodily autonomy did not extend to the citizens of the United Kingdom who reside in Northern Ireland. It was not until 2019 that abortion was decriminalized in Northern Ireland. Looking at the concept of citizenship from a feminist perspective, this paper questions if the Northern Irish population are only partial citizens of the United Kingdom due to their lack of abortion rights.

Keywords: abortion rights, citizenship, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom, gender equality

Greta E. Angel Hernández
Terror through rape: Sexual violence inflicted in the context of the Mexican drug war
Lodz University and Universidad de Granada


This essay examines the violent conflict between the Mexican government and cartels operating inside Mexico, which is still not legally recognized as a war. The result is the inability to punish soldiers-aggressors who commit rape as an official crime against humanity.

Keywords: sexual violence, war crimes, conflict, feminism

Carolina Mosquera Vera
Gender and sexuality in the Colombian armed conflict: from patriarchal oppression to feminist resistance
University of Warsaw, Center of Figurational Research


This article explores the impact of the Colombian armed conflict on gender and sexuality, focusing on the resistance of women who were victims of sexual violence. The conflict, which lasted from 1954 to 2016, had nearly nine million victims. Most were victims of forced displacement. And it also led to various forms of violence, including sexual violence, with women and LGBT people being particularly vulnerable. This article highlights the centrality of gender and sexuality in the conflict and the impact of militarization on the gendered social landscape in Colombia. It examines how women who were victims of sexual violence became important social leaders, utilizing their experience to resist the war and transform cultural norms around gender and violence. Through collective action, these women challenged traditional gender roles and power dynamics. The article emphasizes the importance of recognizing and amplifying the voices of women who have experienced violence in conflict settings and highlights the Colombian armed conflict as a case study of the intersectionality of gender, violence, and resistance.

Keywords: Colombian armed conflict, gender and sexuality, women’s resistance

Julia Lasota
Actions of enterprises to improve the situation of women on the labour market
Politechnika Łódzka


The topic of discrimination against women in the labour market, although frequently addressed, is still extremely relevant in many European and other countries. In addition to rules regulated by law, the equality policies of companies also have a significant impact on the situation of women. The aim of the research was to analyse the strategies of companies that support women and to describe the measures that companies put in place to enable and encourage women to start a career, or come back to work, thus ensuring gender diversity, which also has a positive impact on the success of the company. The article refers to the current situation in Poland in the context of other European Union countries. The research is based on a historical method and an analysis of available documents. The analysis of data found in available reports prepared by enterprises and focusing on the effectiveness of strategies supporting gender diversity, allowed me to conclude that the implemented measures are bringing the expected results, and that the current policy should be continued and expanded, as more and more women decide to return to professional activity, thus leading to a reduction of gender discrimination in the labour market.

Keywords: women, professional activity, discrimination, workplace, equality polices

Natalia Borkowska
The moral subject in modern health care – ethical dilemmas and moral distress in nursing
Politechnika Łódzka
e-mail: natalia.borkowska@p.lodz.p


As a health care professional, a nurse should support not only the principle of nonmaleficence, but also beneficence and respect patient’s autonomy and fair distribution of resources. Due to the inclusion of new technologies in patient care, it is worth analysing the need to adapt the existing ethical principles in nursing in order to provide the best possible care, build a therapeutic relationship with the patient and counteract the occurrence of ethical dilemmas and moral distress.

Keywords: ethical dilemmas, moral distress, new technologies, artificial intelligence

Iwona Grodź
DANCE AND FANTOM LADY…? Artist and dance. A few remarks on the margins of Krzysztof Kieślowski’s document entitled Seven Women of different ages (1978)
Polskie Towarzystwo Kulturoznawcze, Warszawa


The subject of the text is a post-image look at the female body and dance as a sign, pattern, model. In this approach, the biography of a female ballerina (artist) becomes one of many (though not the most frequently cited now) established patterns of femininity (life cycles). An example is the 1978 documentary about the “life cycle” of the ballerinas Seven Women of Different Ages by Krzysztof Kieślowski.

The aim is to answer the question: can the indicated pattern of femininity fulfill the function of a parabola or pars pro toto of the imaginary schemas that still function in contemporary culture?

The adopted perspective is therefore inclined towards interdisciplinarity and openness to various contexts. It also allows us to look at broader issues, such as: patterns of femininity in public debate, “body politics” versus the text of culture.

Methodology: communicationology with elements of film studies analysis.

Keywords: woman and art (dance), “afterimage”, Seven women of different ages (1978) by Krzysztof Kieślowski