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Table of contents - abstracts - articles

ARTICLES – DISCUSSIONS – ESSEYS
Marta Candeias Luna
Rethinking the concept of citizenship: ideology, agency and resistance from the margins

Marta Candeias Luna
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8400-8322
University of Granada
e-mail address: Martacandeias3@hotmail.com

 

This essay aims to rethink concepts such as ideology, agency and resistance in order to problematise how these are being instrumentalised by nation states to create hierarchical differentiating categories under the umbrella of citizenship. In order to address the idea of otherness that sustains the discourses that have been generated around citizenship as an element that not only legitimises the existing system, but also the identities and subjectivities that may or may not form part of the enunciated norm.

Through this journey, other ways of approaching these concepts from and for the identities of the margins will be presented, with the intention not to enunciate new truths or definitions of the concepts addressed, but to try to make visible the existing gaps in the system and how we can build on and thanks to these „borders”.

Keywords: ideology, agency, resistance, citizenship, margins.

Oktawia Braniewicz, Łukasz Zaorski-Sikora
Ethical dilemmas of the language of politics - selected examples of hate speech

Oktawia Ewa Braniewicz
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5453-0918
Akademia Humanistyczno-Ekonomiczna w Łodzi
e-mail: obraniewicz@ahe.lodz.pl

Łukasz Zaorski-Sikora
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3404-0994
Politechnika Łódzka
e-mail: l.zaorski@wp.pl

 

Hate speech is a common phenomenon in the language of contemporary politics and in public life. Although the phenomenon of hate speech itself should not raise any doubts as to its reprehensible nature, it is nevertheless connected with ethical dilemmas - hate speech may appear as a tool used in a just cause or as an action legitimately stigmatizing unquestionable evil. At the same time, consenting to hate speech leads to the relativization of good and evil - it is synonymous with accepting the lesser evil. The authors of the article conclude that European legislation should place greater emphasis on creating a coherent definition of hate speech, which would be the same for all EU Member States, and on penalizing this phenomenon. In line with European law, national law should respond to the challenges of the present day. Undoubtedly, one of them is the omnipresence of hate speech in public debate.

Keywords: hate speech, ethical dilemma, language of politics, public life, relativization of values, law, European legislation, ethical absolutism, utilitarianism.

Tetiana Sukhorebra
Features of the implementation of Ukraine’s environmental policy at the local level

Tetiana Sukhorebra
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2918-4574
Vinnytsia Institute of trade and economics of State University of Trade and Economics
e-mail: suhorebra.t.i@gmail.com 

 

The article notes that the concept of “environmental policy” is often used in regulations, but its content is not disclosed. This determines the relevance of scientific research in this field. The article is devoted to the study of essence and substance, the specifics of the implementation of Ukraine’s environmental policy at the local levels. Environmental policy analysis through the prism of the legal nature of public administration in the field of environment allows the division of its directions and levels of implementation.

 The realization of state environmental policy on the ground is implemented simultaneously by three systems: the system of local councils and their executive bodies, the system of local state administrations and the system of territorial executive bodies in the field of environmental management. The subjects of these systems interact on the basis of coordination and subordination and endowed with broad powers in the field of environmental management within their territories. Research of the environmental component at the local level is inextricably linked with developments in the direction of environmental protection security of the region and the state. Adjacent to the concept of environmental policy is the concept of public administration: in the environmental sphere, nature management, natural resources, environmental protection. The concepts of “environmental management”, “environmental and economic management”, “environmental activities” and others are also common among scientists.

Keywords: ecology, environmental policy, public administration, environmental management, legal acts.

Natalia Strzemkowska
The „Silent scream” of the Uyghur minority - human rights in the People’s Republic of China

Natalia Strzemkowska
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0409-1670
Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu
e-mail: natstr3@st.amu.edu.pl

 

The observance of human rights in the People's Republic of China is controversial, and for many years in the public debate there have been reports of violations of the rights of ethnic minorities, in particularly the rights of the Uighurs. The reason for this is the Uyghur-Chinese conflict, which has become one of the factors in the increased repression against the minority in question. Consequently, the current situation of the Uighurs in Xinjiang causes consternation in the international community, which seeks to validate its concerns about the hallmarks of genocide through international law. 

Keywords: Xinjiang, Uighurs, Human Rights, Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, United Nations, People's Republic of China, Communist Party of China. 

Mikołaj Mirecki
Penitentiary isolation and the right to freedom of religion in theory and practice

Mikołaj Mirecki
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2976-3565
Uniwersytet Warmińsko-Mazurski w Olsztynie
e-mail: mikolaj.mirecki@student.uwm.edu.pl

 

The right to freedom of conscience and religion is one of the fundamental rights of every individual. It is not only a law, but also a specific human freedom that regulates life in society. Access to these rights and freedoms is granted to every person, regardless of sex, nationality, faith or even social status. The law of religious freedom must be respected in all areas of life. Penitentiary isolation is a reality guided by different principles. Persons convicted by final court judgments face certain limitations, but under Polish law they are guaranteed freedom of conscience and religion. This is mainly mentioned in the Constitution of the Republic of Poland. The author, considering the subject of penitentiary isolation in theory and practice, focused primarily on the relationship between reality and legal regulations. The author conducted an interview in the Gniezno Metropolitan Curia with bp. Radosław Orchowicz, who for many years served as a prison chaplain.

Keywords: prison isolation, right to religious freedom, prison chaplain, inmate

Mateusz Gregorski
Application of biographical interviews in research on the quality of life of people with disabilities

Mateusz Gregorski
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0617-9737
Uniwersytet Warszawski
e-mail: mgregorski@uw.edu.pl

 

The aim of this article is to present the application of the biographical interview method in research on the life quality of people with disabilities. In the article, the author addresses the problem of whether this method is appropriate in the research and evaluation of public policy in this field. The research assumption adopted by the author takes into account the fact that the method of biographical interview in the research correctly allows for the synthesis of conclusions drawn from the study of individual cases and observations, as well as for generalising and searching for a broader context from the statements of the respondents. Firstly, the author will assess to what extent the assumptions of the analysed method correspond to the topic of quality of life research, especially in the context of disability. Then, an assessment of the extent to which the method of biographical interview is used to study the issue of disability, especially in terms of quality of life.. The operationalisation of the study was based on a review of the literature on the subject in Polish and English from 2006-2021.

Keywords: disability, biographical interview methods, public policy, quality of life research.

Weronika Stawińska-Artecka
Implementation of the principle nullum crimen sine lege for an administrative offence in the area of banking law in Poland and Germany

Weronika Stawińska-Artecka
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1495-6615
Akademia Leona Koźmińskiego w Warszawie
e-mail: stawinska.weronika@gmail.com

 

The guiding principle of a penal law, of fundamental importance for human rights, is the principle of legalism - nullum crimen sine lege, which means that there is no criminal act without a precise definition of it in a legal act. When the principle in question is implemented, every person can be sure that they will be punished only for the conduct strictly specified in the legal act and within limits prescribed by law. The rule discussed above also applies to acts that constitute administrative offences. Compliance with this rule is essential in the model of liability for them because the anticipated fines are counted in millions of zlotys, as in the case of banking law, and the legislator continues to expand the catalogue of legal acts, in which this category of acts is introduced. In Poland and Germany, the liability model for administrative offences is shaped differently, and in both countries, there is a visible increase in the number of regulations introducing this type of liability. The above shows a new challenge, the need to verify that the nullum crimen sine lege principle is guaranteed to the persons concerned.

Keywords: nullum crimen sine lege principle, human rights, administrative offences, banking law, financial penalty.

STUDENTS’ WORKS
Nina Błaszczyk
Definition and dilemmas of contemporary tolerance

Nina Błaszczyk
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2708-389X
Akademia Humanistyczno-Ekonomiczna w Łodzi
e-mail: n.blaszczyk@onet.pl

 

The article deals with the understanding of tolerance and social attitudes towards phenomena considered “other” or “foreign”. An attempt to define the term and signal inaccuracies in its interpretation was carried out  through a case study of selected problems of modern society. The divisions concerning, among others, the situation of sexual minorities, the Catholic Church and the coronavirus pandemic. The main aim of the article is to encourage critical self-reflection and to promote proper tolerant attitudes. It has been noticed that the mere manifestation of views with the use of slogans is not tantamount to active action. Increasing social awareness on this subject can contribute to building empathetic and kind understanding, as well as a deliberate dialogue across divisions. Every person, regardless of their views, origin or religion, deserves respect and approval.

Keywords: contemporary tolerance, discrimination, respect, communication, responsibility, the Catholic Church, national minorities, the LGBT + community, the coronavirus pandemic.

Patrycja Rybak
Studying the role of globalization in the American and Chinese film industry: A cross-cultural management perspective

Patrycja Rybak
Politechnika Łódzka
e-mail: rybakpatrycja0@gmail.com

 

The main aim of this paper was to compare, analyse and evaluate the globalization process on both film industries by assessing the success of foreign blockbusters, in this case, Marvel films, in the Chinese market in order to check the hypothesis that has been formulated at the beginning. All of the information gathered allowed conclusions to be drawn.

Keywords: globalization, film industry, Marvel movies

Dawid Świderski
Ekumeniczny język XXI wieku

Dawid Świderski
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6769-4068
Akademia Humanistyczno-Ekonomiczna w Łodzi
e-mail: flaming725@windowslive.com

 

God is one, just as Love is one and He is Love. The Ecumenical Language of the 21st century is an attempt to describe the progress that is taking place on the path towards building the Church of One God.

Keywords: love, God, unity, ecumenism, the Bible.

Artur Lisowski
Taboos, stereotypes, social conflicts, religion in the perspective of the presence of LGBT motifs in contemporary cinema after the 1969 Stonewall revolution in morals

Artur Lisowski
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4982-2542
Akademia Humanistyczno-Ekonomiczna w Łodzi
e-mail: artad.lisowski@gmail.com

 

Modern culture has a unique ability to intervene with the reality around us, reacting with all that is often difficult to explain with “commonplace definitions.” Film has become a powerful medium of information, allowing us to reach often closed areas of sensitivity and dialogue on a completely different level. This article gives an extended analysis of the phenomenon of the presence of LGBT motifs in contemporary cinema after the 1969 Stonewall revolution in morality. Observing how the socio-political discourse towards the aforementioned group has changed over the years, it is noticeable how great a role culture - especially cinematography - has played in the process of breaking down fears and prejudices nurtured for years. For years, a popular view was that described by Yukimo Mishima in The Golden Pagoda regarding the LGBT community: “Since my only pride was that people didn't understand me, I never felt the need to try to explain to others how I felt. I thought that fate had denied me the ability to see what others saw.” The bold break from social “conventions” undertaken by successive film directors made it possible to set new directions in culture, which unequivocally proved that it was not “fate denied me/us the ability to see what others saw” but the fear, present in people, of stepping outside what we now call the “comfort zone.”

Keywords: taboo, stereotypes, religion, homosexuality, LGBT, tolerance, homophobia.